Media policy 1997-2000 - Two new regulations
The Ministry of Culture has made public two regulations. The one concerning
radio and TV was made effective from 7 January 1994, while the other
concerning advertising and sponsorships was made effective from 1 March 1994.
The regulations include the following innovations: 1) The DR short-wave
radio programmes for Danes abroad are to be financed by licence rather
than directly by the Government.
2) The Ministry of Culture may create rules for the use of sub-titles
or similar measures for TV broadcasts for deaf and partially hearing.
3) Cases and documents concerning business aspects of DR and TV 2
are exempt from public inspection. In general, DR and TV 2 are not
required to publicise documents that are related to programming.
4) Satellite and local radios are allowed to advertise non-prescription
The regulations concerning advertising and sponsorships contains,
among other things, clarifications of the rules concerning advertising
of non-prescription medicine.
7,5 mill. DKK to local radios
The new pool and lotto law has provided the Ministry of Culture with
dramatically increased revenue thanks to wager-happy Danes.
The Minister of Culture, Ms. Jytte Hylden, has decided to make 7,5
mill. DKK of this money available to local radio stations. The Ministry
is presently receiving applications from the fund.
The purpose of the fund is to support the running of local radio stations
as well as experimentation, projects and initiatives, including activities
for special target groups. For example, such groups include ethnic,
language or other minorities. The fund may also be used for education
and technical equipment. Furthermore, it is possible to obtain grants
for media workshops in municipalities who are allowed to participate
in local broadcasting.The administration of the fund is handled by
the committee for local radio and TV according to directives from
the Ministry of Culture.
30 mill. DKK to films from Jutland?
Jydske Film offers DR, TV 2, the Film Institute, the Film Distribution
Centre and the Short Film Fund 17 films for a price of 30 mill. DKK.
Jydske Film, which is a combination of an institution and an association,
has gone through 135 film manuscript drafts written by Jutlandish
authors. 17, all for fictional films, were converted to manuscripts
during the summer and autumn of 1993. There was one manuscript for
a full-length film and a number of manuscripts for short films.
The project was originally supported by the municipality of Århus
through a grant of 300 000 DKK. Lars Arnfred, the Jydske Film project
leader, is currently looking for financial backing in order to convert
the manuscripts into films. The municipality of Århus has pledged
to participate, but most of the money must come from private investors.
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Yle - new law
A new law concerning the national broadcasting corporation in Finland has been
in effect since the beginning of 1994.
The corporation's public responsibilities, administration and financing are
clearly defined by the new law. The law emphasises the public aspect of
YLE does not require a separate concession any longer. The relationship between
YLE and MTV has not been changed. According to the law, the public broadcasting
must offer varied information and a number of differing views as well as
discussion. YLE must provide services for minorities and special interest
groups. Public broadcasting must also provide positive role models, support the
education of the people and offer religious programmes.
The changes of YLE's administration are aimed to create a more business-like
managerial style. For management, relevant broadcasting experience is supposed
to be of greater importance than attachment to certain political parties. The
Parliament will still elect the executive council, which consists of 21 persons
elected for four years.
The executive council appoints the director for a period of five years. The
company management is named by the director, and must represent experience from
various society sectors, including the private and cultural sectors.
Differing ideological points of view should be presented. The Government must
own at least 70% of the YLE stock, and the company will still be funded through
licensing. Advertising will not be allowed, with the exception of specific
situations where an exception from this rule has been granted. This year, the
Ministry of Communications has already allowed advertising in connection with
five major sports events. The permission to send advertising has been
criticised by, among others, representatives of the press, who have maintained
that the licence revenues should be sufficient for the broadcasting company.
The broadcasting company management is replaced. Starting in April, Arne
Wessberg will start his period as the new director. He has previously been the
director of TV 2.
New radio concessions
The Ministry of Communications has received more than 100 applications for
radio concessions. At the start of the year, the Ministry reminded local radios
that their concessions expired at the end of June. At the same time, the
Ministry asked all the applicants to send their applications to the Ministry.
On the one hand, the Ministry of Communications attempts to secure business
possibilities for the current local radio station, and on the other hand,
variety among radio stations is desirable.
Most of the applications come from radio stations currently in operation, in a
number which is higher than 50, and they all want to continue operation. Some
stations even want to extend their area or create a parallel channel. There are
50 brand new applicants. Among them, some are intended for special interest
groups, like youth radio or country music radio.
The most interesting issue is whether a country-wide commercial radio
concession will be granted. The English Classic FM bid attempts such as a
station in the field of classical music and MTV Ltd. has applied for a
commercial radio station under the provisional name Uutisradio. Until now, YLE
has the only country-wide radio stations in existence. MTV has estimated that
the channel should earn 30 to 40 mill. FIM per year through advertising and
that the company should make a profit after a few years.
The intention is to change the rules for local radio concessions in order to
make parallel broadcasts easier.
The Ministry of Communications intends to publicise their draft for concessions
during the month of March. The issue then has to go through political handling.
The concessions are granted by the Government. Last year, the total turn-over
for all radio stations was 165 mill. FIM.
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Proposal for a new radio law
As mentioned in NMN earlier, the radio law has since April 1992 been
evaluated by a commission appointed by the Minister of Education.
The commission was asked to suggest changes to the current radio law
dating from 1985. The chairman of the commission has been Mr. Tómas
Ingi Olrich, who is a member of the Parliament. The commission has
now returned a proposal, that involves certain changes in the current
law, to the Minister.
The proposal from the commission includes a special programme development
fund to strengthen the development of Icelandic programmes. It will
replace the culture fund for radio stations, which will be closed down.
It is the intention that the programme development fund will get its
income from customs and/or other import excises on radio and TV sets
and parts. The income of the culture fund is presently 10% of advertising
income in electronic media.
Privately owned radio stations will be allowed to apply for grants
directly from the programme development fund and the same is the case
for independent producers if they have made an agreement with an electronic
medium about production or completion of the material.
It will be possible for the Minister to announce how large a portion
of the fund will be allotted to material published by RUV (the Icelandic
According to the present law, Icelandic radio is obligated to have
two radio channels and one TV channel. In the proposal, RUV is only
obligated to have one radio channel for continuous broadcast throughout
the year. RUV will thus be able to close one of the two radio channels
if the proposal becomes the new law.
The proposal from the commission recommends that RUV should be divided
into two independent departments, one for radio and one for TV, under
common management by the RUV director. The director will appoint operational
leaders for each of the two departments.
A new board of directors will be established to co-ordinate the two
departments. It will consist of the RUV director, the operational
leaders from the two departments and the chairman of the broadcasting
commission. Employee representatives from the two departments will
have the right to speak and make suggestions.
The main source of revenue for RUV has been from licences and from
advertising. According to the present law, import excises on radio
and television sets will also benefit RUV. However, RUV has only benefited
from this source of revenue once, because the annual budget has specified
that the revenue has been transferred directly to the state and not to RUV.
The proposal from the commission does not suggest that the licence
will be abandoned, but it will be frozen for two years. It will allow
the broadcasting company to obtain revenue by sale of advertising,
but the import excises will not be continued as a source of RUV revenue
and will rather, as mentioned above, be channelled to the new programme
According to the proposal, the operational connection between RUV
and the Icelandic symphony orchestra will be terminated. Until now,
the RUV part of the orchestra has been paid for by the culture fund,
which, according to the proposal, will be terminated.
According to the current radio law, radio stations are required to
file tapes of broadcasts for as long as 18 months. The proposal suggests
that this time should be cut in half, and be 9 months.
The commission proposes that illegal reception of encoded programmes
from TV stations, illegal production and sale of devices to decode
encoded transmissions from TV stations and other misuse of encoded
TV transmission, should be made punishable criminal acts that may
be punished. Icelandic law has until now not covered such crimes.
Young people read more when they watch more TV
An enquiry called "Youth 92" made by the pedagogical re institute
in Reykjavik in co-operation with the ministries of Education and
Justice, the sports and leisure council in Reykjavik etc. shows that
the amount of literature read increases as young people watch more
TV. The enquiry covered half of the pupils in 8th grade (13 year olds),
all the pupils in 9th and 10th grade and 30% of the pupils in secondary
school. The questions covered which books other than school-books were read.
The results showed that only 16% of those who never watched TV, read
books for more than five hours a week. Of the youths who watch more
than 25 hours of TV a week, 27% spend more than five hours a week
News exchange between Nordic countries
RUV's TV participates in a news exchange scheme between the Nordic
countries. Apparently, the idea for this came from the leader of the
Icelandic news department. Pictures and films connected to the news
are transmitted via satellite and Icelandic viewers have already seen
news exchanged under this scheme.
Delay in transmission of live radio programmes
A law proposal has recently come before the Parliament requiring all
radio stations broadcasting live to use a delay system which makes
it possible, for example, to stop defamation. Actually, such equipment
has already been put to use by an Icelandic radio station called Bylgjan.
Slow start for relay transmissions
The Icelandic broadcasting corporation has for some time transmitted
programmes from eight foreign TV stations by relay and offered subscriptions
to these programmes separately and/or as a part of the TV 2 subscription.
As mentioned in NMN last year, there were quite a few applications
to the broadcasting commission for grants to perform such relay transmissions.
It looks like the interest for foreign TV programs is low among Icelandic
viewers, because only 600 decoders to be used to decode relay transmissions,
have been purchased.
Collection of excises from service firms
STEF, an organisation dedicated to composers' rights, has recently
sent a letter to several firms requesting payment of excises for the
use of music by, for example, stores and service firms.
Their form of collecting excises has not been practised in Iceland
previously, but STEF wants to introduce it. The STEF price list has
been approved by the Minister of Education and has been made with
reference to the copyright law. Some firm owners objected to STEF's
suggested collection of excises. So far, no result has come from STEF's
attempt to enforce the copyright law.
Young RUV employees
The average age of RUV employees has increased from 41.3 to 42 years
last year. The average age is still lower than for the colleagues
at NRK, Norway (average of 44 years) and YL, Finland (average of 43
years). The highest average RUV age is found in the administration
and the lowest among sports journalists.
Source: Frettabrev 6/93/TF
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Knowledge database at the University of Bergen
The Ministry of Culture has, in co-operation with Bergen University,
decided to start a knowledge database in the media field, which can
provide overviews of media organisation, structure and economy at
regular intervals. Statistics about use of media and advertising will
also be collected. The goal is to obtain improved and updated data
about the media development in Norway.
NORDICOM Norway will be responsible for running the database, and
the project has a life-span of three years. NOK 650 000 has been allotted
for this purpose in 1994. NORDICOM Norway is currently entering information
about all Nordic media re in the database.
Much news on the radio front in Norway
The radio sector in Norway underwent significant changes in 1993.
The public service; NRK extended its offering with a new channel in
addition to the two previous ones. At the same time, the three channels
were given profiles to match their respective target groups.
Approximately at the same time, a country-wide commercial station
started broadcasting. The new channel, P4, has enjoyed an enthusiastic
reception from large groups of listeners, and has in a short time
become the second largest radio channel after P1 of NRK. The channel
can be received by about 66% of the population. By the end of 1995,
90% of the population will be able to receive the P4 programmes.
So far, it looks as if the smaller local radio stations are hit particularly
hard by the increased competition on the air, and polls have shown
that such stations have lost quite a few listeners. The radio sector
has also complained that the introduction of P3 and P4 has caused
technical problems for some smaller radio stations.
The changes in the radio sector has lead to increased interest for
radio as a medium. Representatives of the public objected when familiar
programmes were moved to a different channel or a
different broadcasting time. Some NRK employees were also opposed
to some of the changes introduced. There was also a debate about whether
the programming profile of P4 really was in accordance with the conditions
specified in the concession, requiring the radio to have a public
The Ministry of Culture has granted the concession for P4, and each
year the company must submit a report to summarise last year's activities
and present plans for the years to come. The yearly report will, among
other things, provide information that can be used to evaluate whether
the activities are in accordance with the conditions of the concession.
Changes in the P4 owner structure
When the Parliament discussed the white paper on Current media (no. 32, 1992-93), it was decided that up to one third of the stock in
TV 2 and P4 radio could be owned by foreigners. Originally, the limit
was set to 20%. This has lead to changes in the P4 owner structure.
Malmship Ltd. has transferred some of its stock to Kinnevik Ltd. and
the foreign ownership has thus increased from 20% to one third.
After the white paper on media had passed Parliament, some changes
were made in the broadcasting law. They were made effective on 1 January 1994.
Up to 15% of the broadcasting time may now be used for advertising.
The previous limit was 10%. The limit for advertising during one hour
was increased from 15% to 20%.
Local radio and TV has previously paid an excise of 5% of the advertising
revenue, which has been paid to a fund administered by the local broadcasting
commission for local broadcasting purposes. This excise has been removed,
and the owners of local broadcasting concessions have thus been given
the same status as the country-wide broadcasting companies TV 2 and
P4, who never had to pay the excise.
A new media commission has been established to handle media questions.
The institution is founded on the previous commission for local broadcasting,
but will be further developed and be assigned new tasks in addition
to the ones handled by the previous commission. The new commission
will, among other things, handle new applications for concessions
for broadcasting and local broadcasting, and will take care of economical
and administrative aspects of the press support.
The changes in the law also mean that the appeal board for broadcasting
is extended from three to six members. The appeal board will now also
be allowed to initiate issues.
Action plan to prevent violence in media
As a measure to counter the tendency towards increased violent crime,
the ministries of Culture and Justice are preparing an action plan
to reduce media violence. This will not be restricted to violence
in film, video and TV, but also include computer games and other new
media made available by new technology.
The current laws for film and video will be examined carefully, and
issues under consideration will include the video concession system
and age limits for cinema admittance. Furthermore, plans will be made
for an attitude campaign among children and teen-agers. It is also
desirable to have more systematic re on media violence.
In the autumn of 1994, an action plan which includes short- and long-time
measures against media violence will be presented.
Daily local TV
NRK TV will start daily local TV broadcasts in northern Norway this
autumn. The broadcasts will cover the counties Nordland, Troms and
Finnmark, and Tromsø will be the broadcasting headquarters.
NRK will have correspondents in Vadsø, Alta, Bodø, Narvik and Mo i
Rana. Later, the county of Nordland will be made a separate region.
NRK TV already broadcasts local TV in the western part of Norway,
covering the counties Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane. The establishment
of further regional local TV is dependent on increased licence revenue.
TV violence and the psychological health of children
An extensive re project is currently under establishment in
Norway. The goal is to re how violence and sex on TV and video
affects the psychological health of children and youth.
Norske Kvinners Sanitetsforening (NKS), a Norwegian organisation for
women has initiated the project.
The assistant general secretary, Ms. Vigdis M. Gjelsvik, says that
while there have been a number of single studies in this field, this
will be the first one to look into the entire problem complex.
Gjelsvik says that NKS will use the knowledge gained through the project
to establish measures to counteract any undesirable developments.
"We want to influence the producers of TV programmes to show more
responsibility in their rendering of violence and sexuality," she adds.
The results will also be used in the internal attitude work among
the 160 000 female members of NKS. The re project will have
a duration of one year.
Media reer Ms. Ragnhild Bjørnebekk at the Police Academy in
Oslo is the professional project leader. One sociologist and two graduate
students at the institute for communication and media at the Oslo
University also take part in the project.
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There is room for two new TV channels
It is possible to establish two new country-wide transmission networks
in Sweden. This is made clear by a public report called "Technical
conditions for further TV transmissions" (SOU 1994:34). Transmissions
from one of the networks, "M4", may be received by 98% of the population,
while the other network, "M5", may reach 85 to 95% of the population,
depending on whether frequencies above channel 60 are used or not.
The transmission stations that may be part of the M4 and M5 networks
may also be used for local or regional broadcasting.
As an alternative to the M4 and M5 transmission networks, it is possible
to establish a transmission system concentrated in larger urban areas.
If transmission stations which may be received up to 30 km away are
used, three transmission stations may be established in at least 20
areas with at least 70 000 inhabitants.
The public report also discusses the possibility of digital TV transmissions.
Digital technology may revolutionise the conditions for transmitting
and receiving TV programmes. The report estimates that digital satellite
TV broadcasts will start in Europe in 1995. It is possible that certain
cable companies at approximately the same time will offer their subscribers
digital TV programmes. During the last part of the 1990s, the telecommunication
network may also be used for TV broadcasts, which, for example, may
include pay-as-you-go TV.
The technical conditions for starting digital TV transmissions from
terrestrial transmission stations will probably be available from 1996.
One condition for significant terrestrial-based digital transmission must
be that a political decision to do it is made. The report suggests
that it is currently impossible to evaluate if and when digital terrestrial-based
transmissions should be introduced. It is important that authorities
make decisions concerning digital transmissions as soon as the consequences
may be properly evaluated.
If the decision is not made before digital transmissions have been
established through other channels, it may be too
late to use terrestrial-based transmissions. The less analogue networks
are extended, the more freedom will be available for later introduction
of digital transmissions.
Commenting on the report, the Minister of Culture, Ms. Birgit Friggebo,
says that she personally would like to see regionally based TV companies
start broadcasting as soon as possible. The work of deciding on which
conditions these broadcasts can be made, has already started. Before
the summer, Ms. Birgit Friggebo will be able to present a departmental
PM which clarifies which alternative solutions are possible.
Suggested new authorities cause debate
The Government has handed over a white paper to the Parliament with
a proposition for new authorities for radio and TV to be introduced
on 1 July 1994.
The proposition contains two new authorities for radio and TV to
replace the four current authorities. The first of these two will
handle broadcasting permissions and make sure that the rules for other
aspects than programming are followed. The second authority will be
responsible for enforcing rules concerning the contents of broadcasting.
This includes use of advertising and the rules which are established
in the agreements between government and certain broadcasting companies.
The proposal has resulted in a debate even before it was handed over
to the Parliament. Certain commentators have expressed the concern
that government intends to increase control of ether media, while
others claim that all the current control of such activities will
In a comment, the Minister of Culture Ms. Birgit Friggebo emphasises
that the suggested new authorities will have the same tasks as the
current ones, but that the change means that the granting of concessions
and the control of the contents of broadcasting in ether media are
kept separate for each transmission form.
Another question under discussion is where the authorities should
be located. The white paper makes it clear that one condition for
the reorganisation to take place by 1 July 1994 is that the current
authorities' premises in Stockholm may be used. Spokespeople for alternative
locations, among them Sundsvall, have proposed that the new authorities
be located outside the capital.
Still high excises for local radio
The local radio auction for southern and western Sweden took place
on 6 December in Gothenburg. 21 concessions were granted in Gothenburg,
Malmö, Lund, Helsingborg, Kristiandstad, Halmstad, Jönköping, Vaxjö
and Borås. The excises were still high. The most expensive concession
was one in Gothenburg, which went for 3.05 mill. SEK per year. The
lowest concession in Gothenburg was 2.25 mill. SEK.
The least expensive concessions, 1 and 1.1 mill. SEK respectively,
must be paid by the concession owners in Vaxjö. In Lund, there was
a significant difference in amounts. One owner pays 2.35 mill. SEK
while another got away with 1.2 mill. SEK. The local radio commission
has announced another auction on 21 March 1994. Two new concession
for Södertälje will be granted. The reason why these concessions have
not been auctioned previously is that they have been brought before
the appeal board.
The local radio commission has also asked Swedish Telecom to make
available local broadcasting frequencies for an additional 15 areas.
When 57 local radio concession have been granted, a pattern of five
networks and a number of independent stations emerges. Much is still
unclear about the degree of co-operation. Many of the local stations
are currently developing their regional news.
The five networks are Z-radio (Kinnevik) with 11 stations, RIX (Swedish
radio development) with 14, Radio City (Svenska Dagbladet) with nine,
Energy (NRJ) with three and Megapol (Bonniers) with four stations.
Sixteen stations are not part of any programming network, even if
they co-operate in various ways in the sale of advertising.
The build-up of networks has been criticised by some social democratic
proposals in Parliament. The proposals claim that the granting of
concessions has lead to a monopoly situation and demand that the laws
should be re-evaluated.
New law about illegal decoders
The law which prohibits certain types of decoder equipment was put
into effect from 1 January 1994. According to the law, it is illegal
to make, hand over, rent, install or obtain decoding equipment which
will make it possible for anyone illegally to have access to encoded
radio or TV broadcasts that are offered on a subscription basis.
Experience from the practising of this law is still limited. Some
reports indicate that some of the mail order business has been moved
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Nordic film in focus
How can you get Nordic film audiences to be more interested in films
from neighbouring countries? This is the question for a trio of seminars
to be arranged in Norway and Sweden. The first step was made last
year at Voksenåsen outside Oslo. Part two took place during the 17th
film festival in Gothenburg in February, and the last step will take
place during the Norwegian film festival in Haugesund on 26 to 27 August.
During the seminar in Gothenburg, a study of film distribution made
by the culture journalist Mr. Håkan Lahger was presented. This was
a result of a visit to Nordic film institutes and interviews with
people in the business about how distribution support may be implemented.
This spring, the Nordic Council of Ministers will examine how Nordic
co-operation can be improved with regards to increased distribution
of commercial and non-commercial film and TV productions.
Many people in the film business are critical to what they claim to
be "desktop products" from the film institutes. This was made quite
clear during the seminar. In the report from Lahger, for example,
Klas Olofsson of Sandrews maintains that more money for support only
means larger billboards and more expensive advertising, which only
make the employees of the film companies happier.
The smaller distributors, like Valhalla in Finland and Folkets Bio
in Sweden, disagree and claim that even a small
amount of money could produce significant results.The conclusion of
Mr. Håkan Lahger, which is shared by Ms. Marianne Möller, the chairperson
in the Nordic Film and TV Fund, is that a radical re-distribution
of the funds in this area must take place, with increased emphasis
on film distribution.
The Gothenburg festival has focused on Nordic film for many years.
This year the so-called GP price for the best rookie director was
awarded for the sixth time. The recipient was Mr. Rikard Hobert, who
also won the audience price.
Nordic Council: Make possession of child pornography illegal
Make the possession of child pornography illegal. This was the request
from the Nordic Council to the governments of the Nordic countries
during the last session in Stockholm. Today, possession is punishable
in Norway, but not in Sweden and Denmark. The Council also asks the
countries to increase the common effort among police and customs officials
to prevent distribution of child pornography.
A heated discussion is presently on the agenda in Sweden. Several
people have been apprehended in connection with a serious case where
child abuse was being filmed. Material has been confiscated, but the
police cannot do anything about those who buy the films. Shortly,
the Parliament will consider whether possession of child pornography
should be made a punishable crime.
The discussion is centred on whether the possession of child pornography
can be said to interfere with freedom of speech. If this is considered
to be the case, the Swedish constitution must be changed. The Nordic
Council says it is possible to circumvent this by specifying that
written or drawn of instances child pornography should not be covered
by the law, which should only include forms where children have participated
actively or passively.
Liberal laws in Nordic countries, except Norway, have made Sweden
and Denmark distribution centres for child pornography to the entire
world. For example, most of the child pornography confiscated in the
USA originates from Nordic countries.
Report about TV in neighbouring countries
There are no technical barriers that prevent distribution of TV programmes
to neighbouring countries. This is one of the main conclusions in
a report from the Nordic ministers of Culture to the Nordic prime
ministers. The report is a result of work carried out by the steering
committee for co-operation in culture and mass media in the Nordic Council.
During the Reine meeting in the summer of 1993 the prime ministers
asked the ministers of Culture to evaluate how Nordic countries could
receive TV programmes from neighbouring countries in a better way
than is the case today. The prime ministers also wanted look into
how the co-operation between national broadcasting corporations could
The report points out that the co-operation inside Nordvisionen has
increased significantly in the area of common productions over the
last few years, particularly through the grants from the Nordic co-production
fund. The co-production possibilities can also be increased through
co-operation inside the Nordic Film and TV Fund. Incentives for TV
companies to buy more independent Nordic film should also be considered.
As far as technical improvements are concerned, the report points
out that an extended offering might have to be based on some sort
of public funding. Country-wide distribution of broadcasts from a
neighbouring country through terrestrial-based transmission networks is not
realistic. Satellite and cable distribution, and, in Iceland, use
of microwave distribution, are possibilities that should be considered.
To a great extent, it will be the decision of the cable companies
in the various countries how it is possible to co-operate about measures.
Distribution on a cable network, or through privately owned satellite
dishes are considered most suitable by the report, and should primarily
be based on private initiatives on a commercial basis (see also the
note about co-operation within the NSD framework).
Both when production and transmission of TV programmes are concerned,
the steering committee points out that the political involvement should
be limited to the legislative aspect. This includes the establishment
of possibilities which may be exploited by Nordic partners in different
Nordic satellite co-operation
A common Nordic company for distribution and sale of satellite TV
channels in the Nordic countries. This is the aim for the co-operation
which has been established between four Nordic telecommunication companies.
2.4 million viewers can currently be reached, which is about half
of the total Nordic satellite TV market.
Nordic Satellite Distribution (NSD) is the name of the company, which
started with the Norwegian Telecom's Tele-TV Ltd. and its daughters
in all the Nordic countries. NSD will develop and sell smart cards
(TV cards) for decoders for distribution of TV channels both to private
satellite dish owners and to cable companies in Norway, Sweden, Finland
and Denmark. One of the goals in the establishment of SND is to offer
a broad Nordic TV menu. NSD has agreements with eight TV companies:
TV 2, TV Norge, Eurosport, Discovery, CNN, MTV, Children's Channel
and Filmnet. Negotiations are under way with TV3 and Swedish TV 1 and TV 2.
NSD aims at using sub-titles or dubbing of foreign broadcasts to adapt
them to Nordic conditions as well as possible. It is a goal for NDS
to counter the increased international competition on distribution
of pay-as-you-go TV. A Nordic satellite TV market will make it easier
for Nordic TV programming industry to be successful, NDS claim. The
new company will rent transponder capacity from the satellite department
of the Norwegian Telecom through the Thor and Intelsat satellites,
both located in the position of one degree west longitude. This position
gives equal and good coverage throughout the Nordic countries.
Films about Hamsun
This spring, Per Olov Enquist will write the manuscript to a film
about the life of Knut Hamsun. The financing is complete and Bille August will be the director. Max von Sydow will play Hamsun and Ghita Nørby his wife Marie.
More about Hamsun: Henning Carlsen will entangle with the novel Pan,
which will get co-Nordic financial backing. Northern Lights will be
the main producer.
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